- Baghdad And Riyadh Push For More Cooperation; Iraqi Leaders, Factions Cautiously Welcome Biden’s Victory; Borrowing Bill Approved Despite Kurdish Objections – On November 5, UNAMI issued a report on the Iraq’s preparations for the next parliamentary, calling the approval of electoral districts a “significant and welcome step forward in electoral preparations.” On November 6, Basra Police opened fire on unarmed protesters, killing a 29-year-old protester and wounding seven more. The Interior Ministry arrested the shooter and called the killing an “individual act,” that disobeyed orders. On November 8, Iraq’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs congratulated Joe Biden on his victory in the U.S. election, adding that the Ministry “looks forward” to increased cooperation and “strengthening of bilateral ties.” Dhafer al-Ani, a member of Parliament’s Foreign Affairs Committee, called on Biden to avoid the mistakes of Obama’s Iraq policy, which he said allowed Iran’s power to grow. Pro-Iran factions welcomed Biden’s victory too, but expressed concern Trump may “use this transitional period to target our leadership.” On November 10, PM Kadhimi held a teleconference with Saudi Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman to discuss security, economic and political cooperation and recent meetings of the Iraqi-Saudi Coordination Council. In a joint statement, they highlighted agreements on the opening the Arar border crossing within a week and establishing a Saudi commercial office in Baghdad. The two sides also pledged to adhere to OPEC and OPEC+ decisions “to guarantee fair and appropriate oil prices.” Baghdad and Riyadh also discussed conducting joint military exercises and the exchange of military attaches. On November 12, Parliament voted to approve a borrowing bill designed to cover public sector salaries amid Iraq’s ongoing financial crisis. The vote took place in the early hours of Thursday despite strong objections from Kurdish representatives. Lawmakers lowered the borrowing amount from IQD41 trillion to IQD12 trillion and decreased “essential expenses” estimates from IQD57.811 trillion to IQD22.5 trillion. more…
- Deadly ISIS Raid Shakes A Baghdad Suburb; IEDs, Abductions Hit Kirkuk And Anbar As ISF Launches Anti-ISIS Operation In Salah Ad-Din – Between November 5 – 12, ten active and legacy IEDs in Ninewa, Kirkuk, Diyala, Salah ad-Din and Baghdad killed at least six Iraqis and wounded another 20. On November 8, four ISIS militants attacked a tribal PMF outpost in Radwaniyah, southwest of Baghdad. There were conflicting causality reports, with one security source saying the attack killed eleven people, including six civilians who attempted to assist the PMF fighters with personal weapons. The incident prompted the commander of Baghdad Operations to urge higher authorities to consider providing better armaments to the tribal PMF fighters. On November 10, security sources said ISIS militants kidnapped five civilians from Anbar and Kirkuk. On November 8, Iraqi forces launched a large anti-ISIS operation in the Makhoul and Khanouka mountain ranges in northern Salah ad-Din province backed by airstrikes by the Iraqi Air Force and International Coalition aircraft. more…
- Aid Groups Warn Rushed IDP Camp Closures Could Leave Thousands Homeless; COVID-19 Cases Surpass 500,000 – On November 8, the World Health Organization and the KRG launched a joint COVID-19 prevention and awareness campaign intended to slow the recent increase in cases in Erbil and Duhok provinces. On November 9, the Ministry of Migration and Displacement announced all camps for internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Iraq outside of the Kurdistan region will be closed and their residents relocated by the beginning of 2021. The camp closure plans have raised alarms among aid groups. On November 9, the Norwegian Refugee Council expressed concern over Baghdad’s efforts to close the camps, arguing that the hasty closures were “rendering more than 100,000 people homeless.” On November 10, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees reported that while the rise in COVID-19 cases has slowed in recent weeks, the Iraqi government’s lax approach toward virus-related restrictions places vulnerable displaced populations at disproportionate risk. On November 12, the Ministry of Health reported that the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases increased to 511,806. Deaths from confirmed cases of COVID-19 reached 11,531 while the number of patients currently in hospitals increased to 61,046. To date, 439,228 patients have recovered from the virus and Iraq has tested 3,076,646 samples for COVID-19. The areas most affected this week were Baghdad and the Kurdistan region, which reported 827 and 1,170 new positive cases on November 12 alone, respectively. more…
- Kadhimi Wants More Revenue, Stricter Control At Border Crossings; Iraq Intensifies Talks With Daewoo Over Delayed Faw Port Project; Finance Ministry Releases Salaries – On November 8, PM Kadhimi met with the head of the Border Crossings Authority to discuss efforts to control formal and informal border crossings to “combat smuggling, counterfeiting, and waste of public money.” Kadhimi emphasized closing informal crossings to protect local products and the national economy. On November 12, Iraq’s Transport Ministry said that fresh negotiations with Daewoo over al-Faw Port have produced an “understanding with the company.” Minister Nasir al-Shibli stressed that PM Kadhimi instructed “to implement the project as quickly as possible,” adding that talks with the company continue to “resolve technical and financial issues,” concerning the port’s depth and cost. On November 12, the Finance Ministry announced that it has instructed its departments and banks under its control to prepare to pay the delayed October salaries of government employees starting Sunday, November 14. more…
For more background on most of the institutions, key actors, political parties, and locations mentioned in our takeaways or in the stories that follow, see the ISHM Reference Guide.
On November 5, UNAMI issued a third report on the Iraqi High Electoral Commission (IHEC)’s preparations for the next parliamentary election. UNAMI called the approval of electoral districts a “significant and welcome step forward in electoral preparations.” UNAMI also welcomed the appointment of new Directors-General for IHEC’s departments. The report said UNAMI was putting together a “training package” for new elections officials. The report also noted that IHEC has opened 1,079 voter registration centers and registered 15.2 million of Iraq’s 26.2 million eligible voters using a new biometric voter registration system. UNAMI notes that completing the biometric data collection presents a challenge for the IHEC, and that it was providing “technical support” while IHEC works to bring online “the systems and equipment necessary to resume biometric data collection.” UNAMI reported that 230 political parties have registered for the elections, a slight increase from 205 parties in 2018, though IHEC is currently processing the registration of an additional 72 parties. The report also says IHEC has established a committee comprising the Ministry of Health, the Supreme Committee for Health and Safety, and UNAMI, to prepare “strategies and measures” to “mitigate the potential impact of” COVID-19 on elections. In related news, France provided the UN with €10 million to help support IHEC with independent elections advisors.
On November 6, Basra Police opened fire on unarmed protesters, killing a 29-year-old Basrawi protester and wounding seven more in Basra’s al-Bahriya Square. A Basrawi activist told al-Mada that security forces quickly escalated to using live ammunition instead of the usual tactic of using smoke grenades or hoses first. The next morning, demonstrators reportedly clashed again with security forces during a funeral procession for the slain protester. On November 7, the Interior Ministry arrested the shooter and a ministry spokesperson called the killing an “individual act,” that disobeyed orders. The official said the shooter was a Basra Police Captain who admitted to firing his weapon to disperse the crowd, when a bullet hit a protester, killing him. The official added that the Basra Police forces were carrying weapons contrary to official orders from Baghdad. Prime Minister Kadhimi said that the Iraqi government “will not tolerate any security official” who uses live ammunition against demonstrators. The demonstration occurred about a week after security forces burned down tents and broke up demonstrators occupying al-Bahriya Square in an effort to open up Basra city’s main roads.
On November 6, the Iraqi Front, a new Sunni bloc created with the stated aim of removing Parliament Speaker Mohammed al-Halbousi held a meeting at the home of Anbar representative Qasim al-Fahdawi to discuss the next steps for removing the Speaker, and the group’s position regarding the borrowing bill presented to Parliament. Iraqi Front spokesperson Mohammad al-Khalidi said that the group was continuing their efforts to collect the 110 signatures “required by law” to call a vote of no confidence against Halbousi.
On November 7, “several hundred” demonstrators gathered at Baghdad’s al-Hurriya Square, near the Green Zone, to demand an end to the U.S. military presence in Iraq. Demonstrators held banners threatening “resistance” if the Iraqi government did not take steps to implement Parliament’s January 5 non-binding resolution to expel U.S. forces. Protesters also flew the flag of the Popular Mobilization Forces. There was also a heavy Iraqi Security Forces (ISF) presence at the demonstration, though no clashes were reported.
On November 8, the Iraqi Ministry of Foreign Affairs congratulated Joe Biden on his victory in the U.S. election, adding that the Ministry “looks forward” to increased cooperation and “strengthening of bilateral ties.” On November 7, Prime Minister Kadhimi said that he “looked forward to… strengthening strategic ties” between Iraq and the United States. Nouri al-Maliki also congratulated Biden, saying that he wished Biden success “in [Biden’s] difficult mission and success in addressing the inherited problems and crises facing” the incoming Biden administration. Masrour and Nechirvan Barzani also recognized Biden’s victory, saying in two separate tweets that they looked forward to increased bilateral cooperation. Massoud Barzani extended his own “heartfelt congratulations” to “his friend Joe Biden” and said he “will hope and pray the free world will witness more peace and prosperity” during the Biden Presidency.
On November 8, Dhafer al-Ani, a member of Parliament’s Foreign Affairs Committee, called on U.S. President-elect Biden to avoid the mistakes of the Obama Administration’s Iraq policy, which permitted the growth of Iranian influence. Ani took particular issue with the Obama Administration’s handling of the 2010 Iraqi elections, calling it a “rude American interference in internal affairs that biased one party over another.” Ani said that the 2015 JCPOA nuclear deal with Iran “did not establish regional security and stability.”
On November 9, pro-Iran factions welcomed U.S. President-elect Joe Biden’s victory, but expressed concern about President Trump’s actions during the transitional period. Kataib Hezbollah (KH) spokesperson Mohammad Mohie said that Trump’s term was “extremely negative” and that he hoped Biden would “end the crisis and withdraw troops from Iraq.” However, Mohie added that he is concerned Trump may “use this transitional period to target our leadership.” Mohie emphasized in an interview with BBC that if Trump violates the truce, the “resistance factions” will again target U.S. forces in Iraq. Nasr al-Shammari, the spokesperson for Harakat Hezbollah al-Nujaba, speculated that Biden’s victory would allow for “cooperation” between Iraq and the U.S.
On November 9, a Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) delegation headed by BafelTalabani met with a KDP delegation headed by Nechirvan Barzani in Erbil to review the Kurdistan Region’s political situation as well as the financial and economic problems caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. News reports said the meeting was expected to address recent attacks by PKK militants on security forces in the Kurdistan region. Barzani noted the importance of joint cooperation between KDP and PUK and their “shared responsibility” for the governance of the Kurdistan Region and its security and stability. They also expressed support for early national elections set for June 6, 2021. Both parties declared support for continued “decentralization” in the Region to “transfer authority to lower levels,” while eliminating obstacles to public projects and provision of public services. PUK and KDP also reaffirmed their commitment to help the Kurdish people “overcome difficult circumstances” stemming from the financial and economic crises facing Iraq.
On November 9, Kurdistan Regional Government Prime Minister Masrour Barzani departed Erbil to begin a series of bilateral European visits. Barzani met with Dutch Prime Minister Mark Rutte and discussed Dutch investment in the Kurdish agricultural sector, as well as cooperation in security and migration issues. Barzani was also expected to meet with the leaders of Belgium, Germany, and France to discuss diplomatic, economic, and commercial ties.
On November 10, Prime Minister Kadhimi held a teleconference with Saudi Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman to discuss security, economic and political cooperation and the outcomes of recent meetings of the Iraqi-Saudi Coordination Council. The two sides issued a joint statement highlighting agreements on several points, including opening the Arar border crossing in Anbar province within seven days and opening a Saudi commercial attache office in Baghdad “soon.” The two sides also pledged to adhere to all decisions reached by OPEC and OPEC+ “to guarantee fair and appropriate oil prices for consumers and exporters alike.”The meeting also addressed enhancing cooperation on countering extremism and supporting regional stability. During an earlier meeting on November 8 of the Iraqi-Saudi Coordination Council in Baghdad, Kadhimi invited Saudi companies to invest in Iraq, calling for “operationalizing some joint projects between the two countries within the framework of the Arab League.” On November 9, Foreign Minister Fuad Hussein and Saudi Foreign Minister Faisal bin Farhan convened a meeting of the Political, Security, and Military Committees of the Iraqi-Saudi Coordination Council. The two parties promised to strengthen security and intelligence cooperation to combat crime and smuggling, and proposed a memorandum of understanding for conducting joint military exercises and the exchange of military attaches. Iraq and Saudi Arabia also discussed plans to facilitate travel for businessmen between Iraq and Saudi Arabia and allow visa-free travel for diplomatic and service passport holders.
On November 12, Parliament voted to approve a borrowing bill designed to cover public sector salaries amid Iraq’s ongoing financial crisis. The vote took place in the early hours of Thursday despite strong objections from Kurdish representatives, who walked out half way through the voting process. The head of the Kurdistan Democraitc Party (KDP) bloc in Parliament, Vian Sabri said her colleagues received “assurances from [Speaker] Halbousi” that an article that places conditions on the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) share of funds would be placed on hold “but were surprised to see that article put to a vote.” An attempt to conduct the vote on November 11 failed after the Hikma bloc, State of Law, and Sadiqoun amended the bill through Parliament’s Finance Committee to reportedly demand that the KRG sends 480,000 barrels per day (bpd) of oil and all non-oil revenues to the federal government before the latter could send the KRG funds to pay its public sector employees–conditions Kurdish representatives found unacceptable. When Parliament reconvened for the late night-early morning voting session, Speaker Mohammed al-Halbousi announced that the bill “will pass, whether by consensus or by majority,” indicating that a majority in Parliament was determined to pass the bill even if that required a break with the norms of Iraq’s consensus-based politics. Copies of the amended bill that was approved show that lawmakers lowered the borrowing amount from IQD41 trillion to IQD12 trillion and allocated 20% of the funds to investment projects. The bill also lowered revenue estimates for the last four months of 2020 from IQD19.719 trillion to IQD10.5 trillion, and decreased “essential expenses” estimates from IQD57.811 trillion to IQD22.5 trillion. The bill prohibits the federal government from funding the KRG if the latter fails to hand over the revenue generated from oil exports “as determined by the Iraqi oil marketing company, SOMO” as well as all non-oil revenues.
On November 5, an improvised explosive device (IED) wounded two police officers after it detonated against their vehicle in the village of Mahana, near the Qayyarah subdistrict, south of Mosul.
On November 6, unidentified gunmen assassinated Ghazi Abu Mohammad, a retired Brigadier General in the Ministry of Interior, as he was leaving Tahrir Square in central Baghdad. Abu Mohammad reportedly provided demonstrators assembled in Tahrir Square with logistical support throughout last year’s mass protests.
On November 7, press sources affiliated with the PKK said the group issued a statement claiming that the group did not attack the Peshmerga in Duhok province last week, despite its earlier claim of responsibility. The statement said that the PKK’s camp in the area where the attack occurred “was infiltrated from two sides…we regret that such an incident has even taken place,” without explaining who the alleged infiltrators were.
On November 7, an IED exploded against an Iraqi Army vehicle as it travelled toward Jurf al-Sakhr in northern Babylon province. The explosion wounded two army commandos who were in the vehicle.
On November 7, police sources said a legacy IED detonated in the al-Busayf village south of Mosul, killing a child and critically injuring another. The following day, a second legacy IED exploded in the Sultan Abdullah village near Qayyarah, south of Mosul, damaging a civilian vehicle and wounding its driver.
On November 7, ISIS militants attacked a security post northeast of Baquba, Diyala province, wounding a police officer. To the northeast an ISIS sniper wounded an Iraqi soldier south of Khanaqin on November 8.
On November 8, Deputy Commander of Joint Operations Command Abdul Amir al-Shammari announced the start of a large anti-ISIS operation in the Makhoul and Khanouka mountain ranges in northern Salah ad-Din province. Iraqi Air Force and International Coalition aircraft began the operation with a series of air strikes on suspected ISIS positions in the mountain ranges while units of the ISF, Popular Mobilization Forces (PMF), and federal police conducted search operations in the mountains, destroying numerous ISIS tunnels and seizing weapons caches. There were no immediate reports of ISIS casualties.
On November 8, an IED exploded against a bulldozer of the 6th PMF brigade during search operations in the Makhoul mountains, wounding the vehicle’s driver. On November 10, another IED exploded targeting PMF fighters in the same area, wounding six fighters of the same PMF brigade.
On November 8, a suspected Turkish airstrike wounded one member of the Sinjar Protection Units (a Yazidi militia whom Turkey accuses of being affiliated with the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK)) in the Sinuni area of Sinjar, west of Mosul. Another Turkish airstrike was reported minutes later in the nearby village of Para in Sinjar that did not cause any casualties. On November 10, the Turkish Army shelled areas near the border with Duhok province suspected of PKK presence. The bombardment, which reportedly occurred near a Yazidi IDP camp, damaged farms but did not cause any casualties.
On November 8, an explosion (possible IED) injured a civilian in the Sha’ab area, northeastern Baghdad.
On November 8, four ISIS militants attacked a tribal PMF outpost in Radwaniyah, southwest of Baghdad. A security source reported that the attack killed eleven people, including six civilians who attempted to assist the PMF fighters with personal weapons, though casualty figures vary by source. The Security Media Cell reported four killed and three wounded, while the Baghdad Operations Command reported six killed and three wounded. On November 11, Baghdad Operations commander Lieutenant General Qais al-Mohammadawi promised to pursue those responsible for the attack and urged higher authorities to consider providing better armaments to the tribal PMFfighters.
On November 9, an IED exploded against a vehicle of the 52nd PMF Brigade in the village of Pulkhana, Kirkuk province. The explosion killed a member of the Oil Police and a PMF fighter, and injured six more PMF fighters. The same day, an IED exploded against a convoy transporting members of a Turkmen PMF unit in the al-Zarga area south of Kirkuk. The explosion killed two of the fighters and injured five others.
On November 9, unidentified gunmen attacked and wounded a local government official with small arms fire in the subdistrict of Abu Sayda, Diyala province.
On November 10, a security source reported that ISIS kidnapped four civilians from a village north of Rutbah, Anbar province. The source did not provide any details about the identities of those kidnapped. To the north, security sources reported that ISIS kidnapped a civilian from their home in the Khirbet Aziz, southwest of Kirkuk.
On November 11, unidentified assailants attacked a liquor store in the al-Adel neighborhood of Baghdad with a grenade. The attack did not cause any casualties.
On November 11, French aircraft conducted airstrikes in the Qara Chogh mountains near Makhmour, southeast of Mosul, killing three ISIS fighters and destroying four of their hideouts.
On November 11, ISIS militants attacked the town of Wana, north of Mosul with mortar fire. The attack did not cause any casualties.
On November 12, a security source reported that an explosion killed an ISF explosives disposal technician and wounded a soldier while attempting to dismantle a bomb north of Muqdadiyah, Diyala province.
On November 8, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the KRG launched a joint COVID-19 prevention and awareness campaign intended to slow the recent increase in cases in Erbil and Duhok provinces. The campaign will target four million people in the two provinces to stress the importance of mask-wearing, hand washing, and social distancing. The WHO and the KRG will additionally mobilize a team of volunteers in the two provinces to distribute masks and provide information on COVID-19.
On November 9, the Ministry of Migration and Displacement announced all internally displaced person (IDP) camps in Iraq outside of the Kurdistan region will be closed and their residents relocated by the beginning of 2021. The same day, the Ministry reported the return of 2,200 IDPs from the Hammam al-Alil and Jada camps in Ninewa province to their homes in Mosul and the surrounding areas. The ministry also announced it would be closing Iraq’s two largest IDP camps in Ninewa and Anbar provinces “in the next two days.” On November 11, local authorities in Anbar province announced the closure of the Habbaniyah camp, the largest remaining IDP camp in the province, with the departure of the last 40 families from the camp to their homes in the cities of al-Qaim, Fallujah and Saqlawiyah. The camp closure plans have raised alarms among aid groups. On November 9, the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) issued a statement expressing its concern over the Iraqi government’s efforts to close IDP camps, arguing that the hasty closures were “rendering more than 100,000 people homeless.” NRC stated many IDPs are unwilling and unable to return to their homes after being forced from the camps, as many of their areas of origin are still dangerous, inaccessible, or largely destroyed. NRC said that the Iraqi government’s efforts to close the camps do little to end the displacement crisis and leave IDPs more vulnerable than ever, calling on the Iraqi government to provide a clear plan for camp closures and ample warning time ahead of expected closures to the camps’ residents and stating that humanitarian organizations should be involved in planning for camp closures. NRC also called on federal authorities to coordinate with local governments to ensure returnees are able to pass through checkpoints unharmed.
On November 10, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) reported that while the rise in COVID-19 cases has slowed in recent weeks, the Iraqi government’s lax approach toward virus-related restrictions places vulnerable displaced populations at disproportionate risk. UNHCR said it adapted its activities in IDP camps to increase treatment and prevention support as COVID-19 cases continue to rise among camp residents. These activities include distributing sanitary packages to families and educating camp residents on social distancing and best hygiene practices.
On November 12, the Iraqi Ministry of Health reported that the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases in Iraq rose to 511,806, representing a weekly increase of 22,055 cases from the 489,751 cases reported on November 5. Of these cases, 61,046 patients are currently in Iraqi hospitals, including 387 in the intensive care unit (ICU). This represents an increase of 2,856 patients in Iraqi hospitals from last week, and a 25 patient decrease in ICU patients. Ministry data indicated that there were a total of 356 new COVID-related deaths this week, bringing the total from 11,175 to 11,531. The total number of recoveries increased from 420,206 to 439,228. The daily average for new cases increased slightly from last week, with a daily average of 3,176 new cases, slightly up from an average of 3,117 new cases per day last week. In the past 24 hours, the areas with the highest case counts were Baghdad with 827 cases, Erbil with 489 cases, Duhok with 410 cases, Sulaymaniyah with 271 cases, and Kirkuk with 232 cases. To date, Iraq has tested a total of 3,076,646 samples for COVID-19. In a move that appears designed to enhance infection spread control from travel, the Iraqi High Committee for Health and National Safety on November 7 designated airports as the sole ports of entry for foreigners entering Iraq.
On November 12, Iraq’s Transport Ministry said that fresh negotiations with Daewoo over al-Faw Port have produced an “understanding with the company.” Minister Nasir al-Shibli stressed that Prime Minister Kadhimi instructed “to implement the project as quickly as possible,” adding that talks with the company continue to “resolve technical and financial issues.” Shibli asserted that disagreements were limited to “the number of cubic meters” concerning excavation to establish the port’s depth. According to the minister, a change in this figure led Daewoo to request more funds to do the work. Iraqi sources said earlier this week that the negotiations were “positive and there is a possibility to reach an agreement to begin the work.” According to a report by al-Mada, Iraq and Dewoo previously agreed to a depth of 19.8 meters deep, but disagreements emerged as Daewoo allegedly pushed to decrease the depth to 14.3 meters. The disagreement on the depth is linked to another disagreement on cost. A Transport Ministry official told al-Mada that Deawoo initially agreed to a price tag of $2.37 billion, but later raised the to $2.8 billion. Members of the Parliamentary Service and Reconstruction Committee called Daewoo’s changes to the original agreements “suspicious” and claimed that “regional interference” from outside powers was to blame.
On November 8, Prime Minister Kadhimi met with Omar al-Waeli, head of the Border Crossings Authority to discuss efforts to control formal and informal border crossings to “combat smuggling, counterfeiting, and waste of public money.” Kadhimi emphasized closing informal crossings to protect local products and the national economy. Earlier, Kadhimi met with the management of the port and customs at Umm Qasr in Basra, where he said that his government will not tolerate misuse of funds or corruption in the collection of Umm Qasr’s customs revenue. Kadhimi commended steps taken to impose control over Iraq’s border crossings, adding that customs revenues have increased in the aftermath of July’s campaign to deploy additional security forces in an attempt to stop corruption at Iraq’s border crossings.
On November 12, the Finance Ministry announced that it has instructed its departments and banks under its control to prepare to pay the delayed October salaries of government employees starting Sunday, November 14. The announcement followed the passage of a new borrowing law at dawn on November 12 [see above].
IED Incidents and Resulting Casualties
|11/07/20||Jurf al-Sakhr, Babylon||0||2|
|11/08/20||Makhoul mountain range, Salah ad-Din||0||1|
|11/08/20||Makhoul mountain range, Salah ad-Din||0||6|
Please note: some geographic locations represented are approximations and this map may not represent all incidents.
Derived from firsthand accounts and Iraq-based Arabic and Kurdish news sources, the Iraq Security and Humanitarian Monitor is a free publication of the Enabling Peace in Iraq Center.