- Mohammed Allawi To Be Iraq’s Next PM; Saeroun And Fatah Endorse Allawi, Protesters Reject Him; At Least Eight Killed, Scores Injured After Sadr’s Followers Attack Protesters – On February 1, President Barham Salih tasked former communications minister Mohammed Tawfiq Allawi with forming Iraq’s next government, ending two months of deadlock since outgoing PM Adil Abdul-Mahdi resigned on November 30. Allawi pledged to form an inclusive and non-partisan government. He promised that government forces won’t be used against the people, calling on protests to continue and maintain pressure for reforms. He has 30 days to present his cabinet to Parliament for a vote of confidence. On February 1, the Saeroun and Fatah coalitions endorsed Allawi’s nomination. Other political blocs said they were not involved in Allawi’s selection, comparing the process to the 2018 deal between Saeroun and Fatah that produced the government of Adil Abdul-Mahdi. On February 1, protesters in Baghdad and several provinces rejected Allawi’s nomination, viewing it as another product of the political compromises rooted in the ethno-sectarian quota system that perpetuate the interests of establishment parties. On February 2, Moqtada al-Sadr ordered his followers to begin opening roads and public spaces occupied by protesters. Bands of Sadr’s followers attacked the Turkish Restaurant building, a main gathering place for protesters near Tahrir Square, and forcibly took control of the building. They also clashed with protesters in Babylon, Karbala and Najaf, in an attempt to wrest control of the protest sites there. Sadr’s followers used handguns, rifles, bladed weapons and batons to beat and intimidate protesters. On February 5, there was a serious escalation in violent attacks by Sadr’s followers against protesters in Najaf. At least eight protesters were killed by live ammunition and up to 100 others were wounded. PM-designate Mohammed Allawi condemned the “utterly unacceptable” attack, and warned he might have to step down. more…
- Joint Anti-ISIS Operations Resume; U.S. Seeks OK For Patriot Deployment To Iraq As New Rockets Strike Bases; IED Targets Prominent Protest Leader – On January 30, the Iraqi military announced that it was resuming joint anti-ISIS operations with the U.S.-led International Coalition for the meantime until the two sides can design a “new relationship.” On January 30, U.S. Secretary of Defense Mark Esper said the U.S. was in the process of requesting permission from Iraq to position Patriot missile defenses at Iraqi bases to protect American personnel there. CENTCOM chief, General Frank McKenzie said he raised the question of the Patriot deployment during his February 4 meetings with Iraqi leaders. On January 31, five katyusha rockets struck without causing casualties near the Qayyarah air base, which hosts forces from the U.S.-led International Coalition. On January 30, ISIS militants kidnapped seven civilians at a fake checkpoint in Diyala. On February 1, ISIS militants kidnapped two brothers in Salah ad-Din. On February 2, ISIS militants attacked the Makhmour refugee camp in Ninewa, killing one camp guard and injuring three people. On February 4, two successive IED explosions west of Baghdad injured three Iraqi soldiers. On February 4, ISIS militants kidnapped and murdered two civilians west of Kirkuk. On February 5, an IED targeted the tent of prominent activist, Dr. Alaa al-Rikabi in central Nasiriyah. Rikabi was unharmed, but four protesters were injured.
- UNICEF Report Points To Funding Gap Impacting Winter Protection For Children; 12,000 Iraqis Returned From Abroad Since May 2018; Ninewa Plains Locals Demand And End To Militia Presence – On January 31, a UNICEF report showed that approximately half the people in need at the end of 2019, or 3.3 million, were children, 658,000 of whom were IDPs. UNICEF appealed for $72.9 million in funding for 2019 programs, which allowed most programs to meet or nearly meet their funding goals with the exception of winter needs, which were only 42% funded, leaving 91,200 children vulnerable to the winter cold. On February 4, the International Organization for Migration said that 12,114 Iraqis returned home during the 20 month period between May 2018 and December 2019. The majority of returnees came from Turkey and Syria. On February 5, the Iraqi High Commission for Human Rights member called on PM-designate Mohammad Allawi to release detained protesters and compensate victims of government and militia violence to demonstrate goodwill and open dialogue with demonstrators. On February 6, dozens of locals from the towns of the Ninewa plains area organized a demonstration to protest the presence of PMF militia in their towns. The demonstrators accused the PMF militias of perpetuating their displacement and imposing illegal taxation on traffic through the Ninewa plans. more…
- Oil Exports Dropped 3.5% In January; Finance Ministry Downplays Paycheck Delays; Trade Between Iraq And Turkey Jumped 20% In 2019 – On February 2, the Ministry of Oil announced that crude oil exports for January reached more than 102.485 million barrels (an average of 3.305 million bpd), representing an approximately 3.5% decline from December’s 3.43 million bpd. These exports generated over $6.2 billion in revenue, $500 million below December’s figures. On February 3, following reports of delayed paychecks, the Finance Ministry issued a statement confirming that sufficient funds were available to pay all civil servants salaries on time. On February 3, the Ministry of Planning announced a national program for youth employment that will offer loans ranging from ID 30 million to ID 50 million to encourage young Iraqis to pursue commercial projects. On February 6, the Turkish ambassador to Iraq said that the trade volume between Iraq and Turkey grew from $13 billion in 2018 to $15.8 billion last year. On February 6, PUKmedia reported that the Dutch government is funding a new project to increase the productivity of farming businesses in Iraq through introducing modern technologies and more efficient growing and marketing practices. more…
For more background on most of the institutions, key actors, political parties, and locations mentioned in our takeaways or in the stories that follow, see the ISHM Reference Guide.
On February 1, Iraqi President Barham Salih tasked former communications minister Mohammed Tawfiq Allawi with forming the country’s next government. The breakthrough came after Salih gave political parties until Feb 1 to agree on a new premier, and ended two months of political deadlock since outgoing Prime Minister Adil Abdul-Mahdi resigned on November 30. Addressing the Iraqi people, the prime minister-designate pledged to form a government that is inclusive, representative, non-partisan, and without pressure from the political blocks. Allawi affirmed that government forces won’t be used against its people, promising to hold accountable those responsible for sabotage and violence against protesters and security forces. Allawi said that he will prepare the country for early elections in consultation with the UN and Iraq’s election commission. In an olive branch gesture to the four-month old protest movement, Allawi called on protests to continue and maintain pressure for reforms, adding that he will set a mechanism for regular consultations with the protesters. Finally, Allawi said that his government would work to establish state monopoly over violence, fight corruption and illicit economic activities by political parties and militias, and prevent Iraq from getting pulled into proxy wars. According to Iraq’s constitution, the prime minister-designate has 30 days to present his cabinet to Parliament for a vote of confidence.
On February 1, the U.S. embassy in Baghdad issued a brief statement acknowledging the nomination of Mohammed Allawi as Iraq’s new prime minister. The cautious statement stressed that Allawi’s designation must be followed by the formation of an “independent and honest government committed to addressing the needs of the Iraqi people.” The embassy said Washington would engage the new government, as soon as it has been formed, to address “vital” security cooperation needs. Meanwhile, Iran welcomed Allawi’s ascendancy and used the occasion to remind the incoming premier that he could count on Tehran’s full support if he were to resume the effort initiated by his predecessor for the expulsion of U.S. forces from Iraq.
On February 1, Saeroun coalition leader Moqtada al-Sadr expressed his approval of Mohammed Allawi’s nomination to be Iraq’s next prime minister. Sadr said that the people, not the political parties, chose Allawi. The Fatah coalition, led by Hadi al-Amiri, also declared its endorsement of the prime minister-designate. Hamid al-Mousawi, a Fatah member, claimed that most political blocs had reached consensus on Allawi, whom he said enjoyed wide approval among protesters and political parties alike. Other political blocs contested this claim, as did protesters (details below). The Nasr coalition of former Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi said it was not involved in Allawi’s selection, comparing the process to the 2018 deal between Moqtada al-Sadr’s Saeroun bloc and Fatah that produced the government of Adil Abdul-Mahdi. A Nasr spokesperson added that Fatah and Saeroun agreed on Allawi merely to block president Salih from pushing a different candidate. The Communist party, former allies of Moqtada al-Sadr, also criticized Allawi’s nomination, saying it mirrored the same compromises that created Abdul-Mahdi’s government. The leader of Wataniya bloc,Iyad Allawi, a cousin of the prime minister-designate, said his bloc won’t participate in a government based on “external dictations and guarded by militias”. The Dawa party and State of Law bloc of former Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki also distanced itself from Allawi’s nomination, and began attacking him with claims that he promised to let incumbent ministers keep their positions. A member of the State of Law bloc went as far as saying that the group will join other parties in denying Allawi a vote of confidence when he presents his cabinet to the Parliament. The Kurdish political leadership, represented by Masrour Barzani, the prime minister of the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG), did not say whether or not they were involved in selecting Allawi. Barzani, however, said he hopes that the political blocs and the public would support Allawi in implementing his government program.
On February 1, Iraqi protesters rejected President Barham Salih’s decision to nominate Mohammed Allawi to be Iraq’s next prime minister. Protesters view Allawi’s nomination as another product of the political compromises rooted in the ethno-sectarian quota system that perpetuate the interests of establishment parties. In Baghdad, protesters held posters with red X over Allawi’s portrait and the words “rejected by orders of the people,” and chanted “Allawi is rejected.” In Nasiriyah, protesters demanded a revocation of Allawi’s nomination, arguing that he was unacceptable because he was not independent and did not meet the criteria set by the protesters and the religious authority in Najaf. Anti-Allawi protests also took place in Najaf and Karbala, where thousands of students marched in opposition to Allawi’s nomination.
On February 2, Moqtada al-Sadr issued orders to his followers to begin opening roads and public spaces occupied by Iraqi protesters and prevent closures of schools and government buildings. A string of calls by Sadr on his followers to return to the streets contradicted his earlier decision to end his involvement in the protests. Bands of Sadr’s followers, known as the “blue hats” attacked the Turkish Restaurant building, a main gathering place for protesters near Tahrir Square and forcibly took control of the building. Sadr’s followers also attempted, and failed, to take control of the Jumhuriya bridge and reopen it to traffic. Eyewitness accounts and videos circulating in social media showed Sadr’s followers attempting to prevent protesters in Baghdad from showing their opposition to the nomination of Mohammed Allawi as prime minister, which Sadr supported. The blue hats also clashed with protesters in Babylon, Karbala and Najaf, in an attempt to wrest control of the protest sites there. The clashes resulted in many injuries among protesters, with at least 12 injuries reported in Najaf alone on February 3. Sadr’s followers used handguns, rifles, bladed weapons and batons to beat and intimidate protesters during these events. Protesters were able to reclaim lost ground in Babylon. On February 4, fresh protests in Baghdad and Nasiriyah condemned the unprovoked assault on peaceful protesters, chanting slogans that contained thinly veiled attacks on Moqtada al-Sadr and his followers. Sadr softened his tone on February 4, with a message to followers saying that their duties were limited to helping security forces restore order, and did not include suppressing the voices that criticize Sadr.
On February 3, political sources told al-Sumaria that Prime Minister-designate Mohammed Allawi commenced his cabinet formation efforts by holding consultations with political powers and informal briefings with analysts and researchers. According to the unnamed sources, Allawi expects Iraq to hold the next general election no later than the middle of 2021. The source added that so far, all political blocs say that they won’t make excessive demands for cabinet positions, warning that the blocs will likely apply increasing pressure on Allawi as the vote of confidence approaches by the end of the month. Allawi had met a day earlier with outgoing Prime Minister Adil Abdul-Mahdi to discuss the transition period. An official statement said that Abdul-Mahdi offered his “utmost level of cooperation” to ensure a smooth transition, and informed Allawi that he would refrain from taking any strategic decisions to allow the incoming premier to set his government’s agenda without interruptions.
On February 4, the supreme judicial council sent a letter to Iraq’s president informing President Salih that a recently selected board member of the country’s election commission was wrongfully replaced by another person. According to the letter, State Counselor Inam Yassin Moahmmed was one of the nine commissioners selected under UN supervision in December to run Iraq’s highest election management authority. Her place on the board, however, was awarded to a different State Counselor, Ahlam Adnan Lafta, under obscure circumstances. The judiciary’s letter urged the president to issue a new decree to correct the mistake and reinstate Ms. Mohammed.
On February 5, there was a serious escalation in violent attacks by followers of Moqtada al-Sadr against protesters in Najaf. At least eight protesters were killed by live ammunition during the latest crackdown and up to 100 others were wounded. Other reports put the tool at 11 killed and 210 wounded. Footage from the area showed chaos during and after the violence, in which Sadr’s followers burned down several protest tents and attacked protesters with firearms, bladed weapons, batons and stun grenades. Sadr followers concentrate their attack on the Revolution Square, in an attempt to clear and control the protest hub. The attackers reportedly abducted several protesters, including some who were injured in the clashes. Eyewitness reports indicate that security forces failed to intervene and end the onslaught, adding that power was cut from the square during the Sadrist advance. The surprise attack may bring about significant political repercussions. Prime Minister-designate Mohammed Allawi issued a statement strongly condemning the “utterly unacceptable” attack, and suggested that such actions put him in a tough position that might force him to abort his government formation bid. He stopped short of pointing out Sadr’s role in the atrocities. Outgoing Prime Minister Adil Abdul-Mahdi ordered an investigation into the incident, a measure that the UN representative for Iraq considered too little too late. The EU envoy and U.S. embassy in Iraq condemned the attack, urging Baghdad authorities to “put an end to this thuggery.” Large demonstrations took to the streets in Baghdad on February 6 to condemn the violence in Najaf and the attempts to forcibly disband protests. A spokesman for Sadr’s militia denied involvement in the attack on protesters, attributing the violence to an unidentified armed group. Meanwhile there were reports on social media of new casualties from clashes between protesters and Sadr’s followers in Karbala.
On January 30, the Iraqi military announced that it was resuming joint anti-ISIS operations with the U.S.-led International Coalition for the meantime until the two sides can determine a “new relationship.” On January 5, the U.S. had suspended coalition activity over security concerns following the January 3 assassination of General Soleimani. On January 15, American military officials reported that joint operations had resumed, a claim that care-taker Prime Minister Adil Abdul-Mahdi’s office contradicted. On February 4, the commander for U.S. forces in the Middle East, General Frank McKenzie, visited Iraq and met with outgoing Prime Minister Abdul-Mahdi, President Salih, and Speaker Mohammed al-Halbousi, but did not meet with the Mohammad Allawi, who has been nominated to succeed Abdul-Mahdi. Associated Press reported that the visiting general discussed the future of security cooperation with the Iraqi leaders with an emphasis on countering the threat of ISIS. McKenzie said after the discussions that “I think we’re going to be able to find a way forward.”
On January 30, U.S. Secretary of Defense Mark Esper said the U.S. was in the process of requesting permission from Iraq to position Patriot missile defenses at Iraqi bases to protect American personnel based in Iraq. In addition to obtaining permission, the U.S. military will need to decide on the strategic positioning and logistical demands associated with the movement and deployment of these sophisticated missile defense systems. The U.S. interest in adding this defensive capability has increased in the wake of the January 8 Iranian ballistic missile attack on Iraqi bases hosting U.S. troops, which caused 50 traumatic brain injuries among American personnel. On February 4, KRG Prime Minister Masrour Barzani supported the U.S. request to allow the deployment of the Patriot system in Iraq. CENTCOM chief, General Frank McKenzie said he raised the question of the Patriot deployment during his February 4 meetings with Iraqi leaders, without revealing the outcome of said talks.
On January 30, ISIS militants kidnapped seven civilians at a fake checkpoint on the road between Qara Tappa and Jabara in Diyala. On January 31, security forces launched a search operation in the area and found the body of one of the captives with signs of bullet wounds. On February 1, ISIS militants kidnapped two brothers in Salah ad-Din province between the towns of Tuz Khurma and Kifri. According to local officials, the ISIS militants released the women and children in both incidents.
On January 31, five katyusha rockets landed near the Qayyarah air base, south of Mosul. No material or human losses were recorded at the base, which also hosts forces from the U.S.-led International Coalition.
On February 1, unidentified gunmen opened fire from silenced weapons and killed a civilian in Abu Ghraib, west Baghdad. On February 3, unidentified gunmen shot and killed a civilian in the Husayniyah district north of Baghdad.
On February 2, six ISIS militants attacked the Makhmour refugee camp in Ninewa, killing one of the camp guards and injuring two others and a civilian. The camp guards also killed two of the attackers during the two-hour long clash, a local official said. An earlier attack on the same camp on January 29 ended without casualties.
On February 3, an improvised explosive device (IED) exploded targeting a popular mobilization force (PMF) patrol between Jurf al-Sakhar and Razzaza, north of Babylon. The explosion wounded one PMF fighter.
On February 4, an IED exploded near the home of former member of the dissolved Dhi-Qar Provincial Council, Hadiya al-Khikani, in al-Fahud, east of Nasiriyah. The explosion caused material damage but no casualties. Al-Khikani was head of the council’s integrity committee and is a member of the Badr organization.
On February 4, security sources said that detonators left behind by ISIS militants exploded and wounded a woman and her two children in al-Salam village, west of Mosul.
On February 4, an IED that was planted on a minibus exploded in a civilian neighborhood in the Riyadh subdistrict, in al-Hawija, west of Kirkuk. The explosion damaged the vehicle but did not cause injuries.
On February 4, two successive IEDs targeted Iraqi army vehicles in Abu Ghraib, west of Baghdad. The explosion injured three soldiers.
On February 4, ISIS militants kidnapped two sheep herders from a village in al-Hawija district west of Kirkuk. The kidnappers then killed the two captives on the outskirts of the village.
On February 4, the Iraqi Security Media Cell said that precision airstrikes by the army aviation destroyed five ISIS hideouts in Lake Himrin, al-Khilaniya, and the Hamrin mountains in northern Diyala province. The strikes reportedly also killed two militants.
On February 5, an IED targeted the tent of prominent activist Dr. Alaa al-Rikabi in al-Haboubi Square, the main protest hub in central Nasiriyah. Dr. al-Rikabi was unharmed, but four protesters were injured and there was significant material damage. Security forces responded to the incident and dismantled a second explosive device placed in the square.
On February 5, senior Sadrist militia operative Abu Muqtada al-Izrajawi died from wounds sustained during a February 4 assassination attempt by unidentified gunmen in the Abu Rammaneh neighborhood of Amara, the capital of Maysan province. On February 6, unidentified gunmen assassinated another senior Sadrist, Sheikh Hazim al-Halfi in Basra city, the capital of Basra province.
On February 5, ISIS militants killed three members of tribal mobilization forces in an attack in the Naameh area east of Tikrit, Salah ad-Din province. On February 5, gunfire from ISIS militants killed a member of the PMF in the Mutebijah area of Salah ad-Din province.
On February 6, an IED that was attached to a civilian vehicle exploded and injured two civilians in the al-Rifai area west of Mosul in Ninewa province.
On January 31, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) provided their 2019 report on humanitarian needs in Iraq. According to the report, approximately half the people in need at the end of 2019, or 3.3 million, were children, 658,000 of whom were internally displaced persons (IDPs). In 2019, 3.3 million children needed education support, one million needed water and sanitation assistance, while 1.6 million children needed protections. Another 1.16 million children required help with nutrition and health. UNICEF appealed for $72.9 million in funding for 2019 programs, which allowed most programs to meet or nearly meet their funding appeals. The one exception was winter needs, which were only 42% funded, leaving 91,200 children vulnerable to cold weather conditions. The report listed child protection and gender based violence programs as exceeding expectations for success. Early funding and expanded services to replace underfunded partners resulted in 300% progress in psychosocial support services, expanded community training and awareness campaigns, and new Child Safeguarding Policy for Iraq and the Kurdistan Region in Iraq.
On February 2, the official Iraq News Agency released new data on the number of people injured and killed in protest activity since October based on official hospital records. According to the data, violence during protests has resulted in the injury of 3,097 civilians and 145 security forces since October 1. Protest clashes have also killed 287 civilians and five security forces since October 25. These numbers are significantly lower than those reported by the Iraqi High Commission for Human Rights (IHCHR), which estimates that 399 were killed since October 25, in addition to 157 killed between October 1 and 25.
On February 4, the International Organization for Migration provided an update on former Iraqi migrants who returned to Iraq during the 20 month period between May 2018 and December 2019. During the reporting period, 12,114 Iraqis returned home. The majority of returnees came from two countries, 40% from Turkey and 31% from Syria. The primary provinces that received returnees were Ninewa, with 57% of total returnees, Dhi-Qar with 17%, and Anbar with 11%. The report brings the total number of returnees since January 2014 up to roughly 4.6 million people. Of the total returnees, approximately 1.8 million returned to Ninewa, 1.4 million to Anbar, and 675,000 to Salah ad-Din provinces. Returnee rates have plateaued since the end of 2018. During the 20 month period between August 2016 and April 2018, 2,885,592 cases of return were reported.
On February 5, Iraqi High Commission for Human Rights member, Ali al-Bayati, called on Prime Minister-designate Mohammad Tawfiq Allawi to release detained protesters and compensate victims of government and militia violence to demonstrate goodwill and open dialogue with demonstrators. On February 6, the Supreme Judicial Council of Iraq claimed that only 38 demonstrators remain in detention and that 3,123 have been released since the beginning of the protests on October 1.
On February 5, the UN Mine Action Service (UNMAS) said it received $2.4 million in additional funding sources for explosive hazard management and support in 2020. Of that total, Belgium donated $1.6 million, Italy provided $784,000, and Slovakia contributed $18,750. UNMAS had received more than $7.2 million in multiple contributions towards its mission in Iraq since mid January.
On February 6, dozens of locals from the towns of the Ninewa plains area organized a demonstration to protest the presence of PMF affiliated militia in their towns. The demonstrators, reportedly represented various communities, including Arabs, Kurds, Shabaks, Yazidis, Christians and Turkmen, many of whom were IDPs. The protesters blocked the main road between Mosul and Duhok, and accused the PMF militias of perpetuating their displacement and imposing illegal taxation on traffic through the Ninewa plans. The demonstrators called on the federal government to expel the militias and restore order to the region.
On February 2, the Iraqi Ministry of Oil announced that crude oil exports for January reached more than 102.485 million barrels (an average of 3.305 million bpd), representing an approximately 3.5% decline from December’s 3.43 million bpd. These exports generated over $6.2 billion in revenue, $500 million below December’s figures. Exports from the southern ports in Basra exceeded 3.26 million bpd. Kirkuk exports were particularly weaker in January, exporting an average 36,7000 bpd through the Turkish port of Ceyhan compared with December’s 91,000 bpd. Trucks delivering oil to Jordan exported approximately 10,000 bpd, while there was no mention of exports from the Qayyarah field in Ninewa province for the second month in a row. Qayyara’s exports, typically 30,000 bpd trucked to southern ports, has suffered in recent months due to road blocks by protesters near the ports. The ministry added that Iraq sold its oil at an average price of $60.45, a decrease from December’s $63.05.
On February 3, Iraq’s Finance Ministry issued a statement confirming that sufficient funds were available to pay all civil servants salaries on time. The ministry said it was working to resolve the delay and ensure that civil servants get paid on time. The statement was in response to reports of delays in the payment of salaries to many government employees, especially those working for the ministries of education and health, and the province of Diwaniyah.
On February 3, the Ministry of Planning announced the launch of a national program for youth employment. A ministry spokesman said the program will offer loans ranging from ID 30 million to ID 50 million to encourage young Iraqis to pursue commercial projects.
On February 4, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and Duhok province signed an agreement for a pilot project that would set up a solar power facility park in the province. The project, backed by $2 million in funding from the European Union, will initially generate two megawatts of clean electricity by 2022. It is part of a larger initiative that aims to expand clean power generation capacity to 40 megawatts by the end of the decade. Due to chronic power shortages from the national grid, Duhok, like other provinces, relies heavily on expensive and polluting “neighborhood generators” for much of their electricity needs.
On February 6, the Turkish ambassador to Iraq, Fatih Yildiz, said that the trade volume between Iraq and Turkey grew from $13 billion in 2018 to $15.8 billion last year. Turkish exports to Iraq grew by 7.8% during the same period, comprising $9 billion of that total, according to the envoy. Yildiz added that his country hopes to expand trade with Iraq, which had declined following the 2014 war with ISIS, to as much as $20 billion.
On February 6, PUKmedia reported that the Dutch government is funding a new project to increase the productivity of farming businesses in Iraq through introducing modern technologies and more efficient growing and marketing practices.The €8 million 4-year project will target farms in the Kurdistan region as well as central and southern Iraq.
IED Incidents and Resulting Casualties
Casualties Due To IEDs from January 30 - February 6, 2020The following table includes both civilian and security forces who were either injured or killed due to improvised explosive devices (IEDs), vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices (VBIEDs), or suicide attacks.
|02/03/20||Jurf al-Sakhar, Babil||0||1|
|02/04/20||Abu Ghraib, Baghdad||0||3|
Please note: some geographic locations represented are approximations and this map may not represent all incidents.
Derived from firsthand accounts and Iraq-based Arabic and Kurdish news sources, the Iraq Security and Humanitarian Monitor is a free publication of the Enabling Peace in Iraq Center.